Diabetes is mainly referred as diabetes mellitus which is the condition in where glucose level of the body is increased either due to excessive production of glucose or inadequacy of the body cells to use insulin. There are two types of diabetes mellitus that is type-1 and type-2. The exact cause of type-1 or type-2 diabetes is not properly known. It is assumed to be possibly caused by genetic factors or exposure to environmental factors.
In type-1 diabetes, the immune system of the body which normally fights the viruses and bacteria are seemed to have mistakenly destroyed the insulin-producing beta cell in the pancreas. In type-2 diabetes, the glucose does not enter the cells of the body to produce energy and instead they build up in the blood resulting in an elevated sugar level in the blood. The beat cells present in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas goes on producing more insulin however, they eventually become impaired and are unable to produce an effective amount of insulin required to meet the demands of the body.
The risk factor related to type-1 diabetes is family history in which the individual likely suffers from diabetes if their previous generation has been affected by it. This is because certain genes which are responsible for increasing the risk of type-1 diabetes may be transferred from the previous to the present generation posing risk for them to develop the metabolic disorder.
The person who has increased amount of weight can be perceived to be under risk of developing type-2 diabetes. This is because an increased amount of weight means increased fatty tissues are present in the body which may make the cells in the body to face hindrance in using insulin properly due to increased deposition of fat. The lack of physical activity also results in risk for individuals to develop type-2 diabetes because inactivity results in the body to be incapable of using glucose in the form of energy. Thus, an increased amount of glucose is deposited in the bloodstream resulting in a diabetic condition of the individual. The family history like the type-1 diabetes is also seen to be a potential reason for causing type-2 diabetes. The women who have the polycystic ovarian condition are also reported to be prone to be affected by diabetes.
The diabetes results individuals to face heart damage resulting them face coronary heart diseases, stroke, narrowing of arteries and others. The presence of excess amount of sugar in the blood is also seen to cause injury to the blood vessels of the body causing the unnourished nerve cells. This creates neuropathy as proper blood flow required for enriched nerve vessels are not present. Diabetes also causes the development of kidney damage known as neuropathy. This is because the increased amount of glucose in the body causes damage to the delicate filtering systems present in the kidney that is lined by millions of tiny capillaries.
The common symptoms which are involved with type-1 and type-2 diabetes are the following:
- Fatigue and hunger: The body is able to convert foods that individuals eat into the effective amount of glucose which the cells in the body use as the mode of energy to work. However, the cells also require insulin for bringing in glucose. Thus, if the body is incapable to make an effective amount of glucose such as faced by individuals suffering from any type of diabetes the cells in their body cannot get enough amount of glucose. This result the cells to face lack of energy which makes the individual hungry and tried.
- Peeing often: An average person usually pees 4-7 times in a day however people with diabetes have to pee more times. This is because the body is able to absorb glucose when it goes through the kidney but diabetic people have more blood sugar level due to which the kidneys are not able to reabsorb the glucose. This is seen to cause increased production of urine by the body making the person pee frequently as the fluids are no more reabsorbed in the body.
- Dry skin: Since the body loses an excess amount of water due to frequently peeing it makes the body dehydrated and less moisture is found in the body. This makes the person have itchy and dry skin and even makes the person become thirsty more often.
- Blurred vision: The changing fluids in the body of the diabetic patients may create swelling of the lens in the eye. This results from them to change share and makes the person lose the ability to properly focus resulting them to develop blurred vision.
- Hearing issues: The individuals suffering from diabetes can also face problems related to hearing as proper nerve signalling of the body is not maintained.
The other symptoms which are related to type-2 diabetes are as follows:
- Yeast infection: The yeast is seen to feed on glucose and thus having an excessive amount of glucose helps them to thrive effectively. This form of infections is seen to grow in the warmer and most areas of the skin such as between toes and fingers, under sex organs, breast and others.
- Slow healing: The high level of glucose in the blood among the diabetes patients often negatively affects the nerves and this leads towards poor circulation of blood over the body making it hard to reach places where blood is required repairing the damaged tissues. Thus, this results in the development of long-lasting sores and wounds among the diabetic individuals. The slow healing sometimes results to create a serious condition in which legs are an amputee.
- Numbness: Diabetes results in diabetic neuropathy that damages the nerve cells which sends signals to the body from the brain. As a result, the diabetic person feels numbness in feet and hands as proper signals are not transferred by the damaged nerve cells.
The other symptoms related with type-1 diabetes are as follows:
- Weight loss: The people suffering from diabetes have insufficient insulin in their body which prevents the body from getting an effective amount of glucose to be used as energy. As a result, the body initiates to burn muscle and stored fat to avail energy creating a reduction in the overall body weight.
- Pancreatitis: The diabetic patients are prone to develop pancreatitis which is inflammation and swelling of the pancreas resulting in individuals to feel nausea and vomiting.
Thus, the person requires to keep knowledge regarding the symptoms mentioned related to diabetes so that they can take early steps to visit a doctor for a check up so as to control the disorder effectively. The diabetes is not curable but can be controlled effectively with an early medical intervention which is going to help individuals live their life normally.