Category Archives: Chemistry

Easy Ways to Learn Chemistry Periodic Table

Chemistry is the subject related to the chemical composition of matters. Elements have their various physical (atomic weight, mass weight, electronic configuration) and chemical (acidity and basicity) properties. Chemistry discusses the fundamental properties of the matter from strictly a scientific chemical standpoint in a more detailed way.

The Periodic Table is the table in which the chemical elements are arranged in the order according to their fundamental chemical properties. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev had first published the Periodic Table in 1869, and it had experienced phenomenal and complete acceptance in the scientific community and amongst the scientists because of its accuracy, applicability and usefulness.

Usually, within the configuration of the Periodic Table, all the elements, natural and synthetic, are arranged in the horizontal order according to their atomic numbers, electronic configuration, and in the vertical order, they are arranged according to their chemical properties. The rows of the periodic table are named after periods, and the columns are designated as the groups. The non-metallic substances are arranged within the periodic table differently than that of the metallic substances. The non-metallic substances are presented on the left side of the Periodic Table. The metallic substances are then made to occupy the right side of the Periodic Table Six different groups are determined among all the substances which are presented in the periodic table and are disseminated among these six groups with the names provided to each according to the ascending order of numerics (as group I to group VI) with the seventh and the eighth group having been designated by the properties of the elements which are included in those two groups.

For instance, the seventh group consists of the Halogens and the eight group being consisted of noble gases which are completely inert and non-reactive in nature. Thus, these two groups are named according to their the substances which are made to be included in them. This speciality of these two particular groups makes them stand apart from the remaining six groups of the Periodic Table.

The Periodic table is tough to be memorised due to its long size expansive and exhaustive number of elements involved and the volume of substances associated with it. Along with this, the Periodic Table is quantified with an enormous and extensive number of molecules. Thus it seems a bit difficult for a diverse number of students to memorise it most efficiently so that the information from this Periodic Table could be recalled at any point in time. This often provides an intractable problem for the students.

Fortunately, the Periodic Table becomes the source of the solution to this problem altogether. It acts as a helper for the chemistry students and chemical engineering aspirants, to learn the different sections of the subject of Chemistry in an orderly fashion. However, sometimes the Periodic table itself becomes an impediment and a burden to the learners.

Therefore, there are some basic recapitulation methods which a are utilised for the periodic table which is represented in the following, which might be helpful for the students:

A) At the time of learning the intricacies of the Periodic Table, you must make it the quintessential guideline for your life, until and unless you do not become familiar enough with the subject altogether. As an essential step for this, you have to prepare a printout of the entire Periodic Table by yourself. During the available free time of yours, you have to have a look at this printout of yours regarding the Periodic Table very carefully. One crucial element that you have to remind yourself is that there is no point in trying to memorise it or mug it up completely since it is next to impossible to the students with average or below than average memory. Only students with photographic or unusually strong memory and power of recollection would be able to memorise and recollect the information. Rather on you can take it as an achievement if you manage to remember some crucial parts of the entire Periodic Table. Any work made with an ambitious perspective is easy to pursue, and the chances of becoming successful are also reasonably higher than any other endeavour regarding the effort and the time invested in it.

B) Next, You need to write the Periodic Table every day by yourself until you can write it without a single glance at the printed section of the Table. If you are a continuous and persistent learner, you must have the tenacity, the persivierance and the diligence to make an ongoing effort continue consistently until and unless you manage to obtain your desired success. Writing increases the task of repetition of a particular subject which is helpful for memorising large quantities of information over a longer time. You must draw your conclusions from your own previous experiences. You could remember the time when you have learnt the alphabets; you had to undertake countless efforts which must have helped you to learn the letters in an automatized manner.

C) Next, you must break the entire Periodic Table down into the smaller sections that you can easily memorise with the least of efforts involved to do the same. For the sake of your improvement, you can add colour to such sub segments which could make the entire topic easier to preserve in the memory more accurately. This approach should be made in an ascending manner in consideration with the subject complexity. For example, at first, you can consider the rows and columns and there after the atomic numbers could be regarded as followed by the atomic numbers of the involved substances and only then should follow the considerations about the electronic configuration.

D) You can zap the Periodic Table during the intervals of your studies or during your free hours… Suppose, you are travelling at any transport for a longer time interval and getting bored off it , you can quiz yourself about the Periodic Table continuously and about the location and position of the contents of it regarding the metallic and non-metallic substances within the table then you could find yourself a much efficient process to master the process of learning the Periodic Table regarding this matter.

E) Next, you must refer to mnemonic devices, which is the best approach to make an association of the elements with each other. Suppose, you can formulate a string of molecules. In this technique, you have to ignore completely the easily memorizable elements altogether. Rather than you must use the tough ones to be memorised.

F) After this, you can draw pictures of each element, and at this time you have to consider that the element, of the image of which you are drawing, must be the part of your known and recognised elements. By this means you can quickly memorise them.

Above mentioned techniques are some basic examples of the undertaking of the process of ‘learning the Periodic Table’. However, these are not the least of the examples; you also can make your strategies to master the Periodic Table and can also modify them further. Whatever plans you may prepare, at the end of the day you must make sure that you have become successful in your venture.

11 major findings in the history of chemistry

  1. Speed up the key oxygen-oxygen bond-formation (O=O) step in water oxidation

o-o bond copyTwo new molecular catalysts of water oxidation have been synthesized by a team of brilliant scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory. These new molecular catalysts – complexes of ruthenium which are surrounded by the binding molecules, and they contain phosphonate groups. Their functions are to accelerate the formation of the O=O bond, which is the slowest step of oxidation of water.

  1. More evidence of RNA has been offered by the chemists as the origin of life

RNA copyIt is believed that the origin of life has started with the prebiotic molecules which usually react along the unidentified paths to produce nucleosides which are a key molecule. A team of chemists has shown how guanine and adenine can be synthesized easily in a reasonable yield. They have offered some of the more evidence that RNA is the origin of life on the Earth.

  1. The blood clots are detected by new technology with simple test at home

blood copyThe patients who suffer from kidney disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the patients who have a risk of blood clotting, are especially vulnerable when the levels of blood-thinning medication get very weak or strong. A blood screening device for these patients has been developed by the scientists.


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  1. Shortcut for organic synthesis using C-H bonds

C-H bond copyA catalyst has been designed by the chemists which provides with a huge shortcut for how an abundant, simple molecule is turned into a much more value-added and complex molecule by the chemists. Another step has been taken by the chemists to use the carbon-hydrogen bonds (C-H) for creating new molecules.

  1. Targeted orphaned domain may lead to drug therapies

ICD copyThe intercellular domain (ICD) has been focused by Jansen’s lab which is diverse. The researches may even result in some new therapies of the drug without the effects which were not desired, by targeting this domain. The intercellular domain was considered as extremely disordered a few years ago. However, the ordered assembly of five ICDs has been shown by this research.

  1. Cancer detection can be improved by new device

cancerdetection copyA new method which has been developed by UBC to isolate the cancer cells which escaped from a tumour could soon pave the way for improved treatment and diagnosis. A simple device is involved in the simple process which squeezes the cells in a blood sample through tiny funnels. However, this research is mainly focusing on microfluidics, the flow of liquids through the channels which are even smaller than a human hair

  1. An enzyme enigma discovered in the abyss

enzyme c
The secret of the ‘Mona Lisa of chemical reactions has been uncovered by the scientists of the Universities of Bristol and Newcastle. This has been done in a bacterium which lives at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The scientists are hoping that this discovery can result in developing new antibiotics and other medical treatments.

  1. Explore the mystery how enzymes work via simulations

enzyme work copyEnzymes play a very significant role in most of the biological processes for controlling energy transduction. Hence, keeping these things in mind the scientists are trying to understand the origin of the catalytic power of the enzymes. This study has reviewed several proposals which are governing the catalytic efficiency of enzymes.

  1. New way of growing crystals discovered

crystal copyThe scientists have discovered a new way of growing the crystals at the University of Bristol. Polymorphism in the polyaromatic hydrocarbon coronene has successfully been controlled by the scientists by producing a crystal structure which had never been observed before. This has been achieved by them by simply growing the catalysts in strong magnetic fields.

  1. Exploring the landscape of cell receptors

cell copyProfessor Scott Prosser and post-doc Libin Ye have found out the reason how caffeine works to provide that extra boost when needed. The class of cell signaling receptors which are also called as GPCRs are responsible for the basic processes such as chemical signaling in the brain, smell, taste, and vision. The GPCRs are often likened as the molecular switches which are blocked by the drugs.

  1. Silk protein used to air-dry blood samples for remote testing

silk protein copyA new way to store blood the samples which are taken at remote locations has been developed by the team of researchers at Tufts University. That team of researchers used a silk protein to stabilize the blood samples without any need of cooling them.

New Elements added in the Periodic family

A Periodic table which is considered to be the list of all elements with their atomic numbers and atomic weights has a reason to be jubilant. The 7th row of the table is complete. It was incomplete till recently, although the existence of the elements to fill the vacant places were predicted much before. The elements, which have been added to the designated positions in the 7th row of the table, are yet to get their formal names. But those are merely process and we will soon have a periodic table, a complete one, with the formal names of the new discoveries.


At present, the new elements are occupying gracefully 113th, 115th, 117th and 118th positions amongst their counterparts. The positions, that is 113, 115, 117 and 118 are naturally the atomic numbers of the elements, that is the number of protons present in nuclei of the elements or the number of electrons that are circling round the nuclei of the atoms of the elements. Presently these new super-heavy and very unstable elements are known as ununtrium (Uut, atomic number 113), ununpentium (Uup, atomic number 115), ununpentium (Uus, atomic number 117) and ununoctium (Uuo, atomic number 118). The elements being heavier than Uranium 92 (which is the heaviest element to exist naturally) are extremely unstable and cannot exist naturally.

IUPAC (The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is the Global body which, undertakes the governance of the nomenclatures as well as measurement in Chemistry, has recognised the scientists of the RIKEN Institute of Wako, Japan, as the discoverer of the element Uut, 113. Whereas, IUPAC has awarded the credit of discovering the element Uut (118) to the teams from US and Russia, working in joint collaboration and belonging to the Joint Institute for Nuclear research in Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory California in the US. The same team has been credited with the discovery of the other two elements with atomic numbers 115 and 117 but with collaboration of another institute Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Being very new to the periodic table family, the new elements are yet to be observed to reveal their entire chemical properties. However the following are the properties which have been identified till date:
Atomic Number: 113
Group Number: 13
Period: 7
Electronic Configuration: [Rn]5f146d107s27p1
Atomic Number: 115
Group Number: 15
Period: 7
Electronic Configuration: [Rn] 5f146d107s27p3
Atomic Number: 117
Group Number: 17
Period: 7
Electronic Configuration: [Rn]5f146d107s27p5
Atomic Number: 118
Group Number: 18
Period: 7
Electronic Configuration: [Rn]5f146d107s27p6